The large quantities of waste generated by chemical, pharmaceutical, metallurgic industries, etc require proper wastewater treatment.
The large quantities of wastewater generated should be efficiently treated for two prime reasons. First, discharging the toxic effluent in the waterbody can harm the aquatic biodiversity irreversibly.
Second, the industry has to the disposal guidelines and norms laid down by the local pollution boards.
Effluent Treatment Plants:
The treatment process and the plant type can vary from industry to industry. However, it is based on a common principle. The wastewater treatment process usually encompasses two stages:
Primary Treatment: It involves the removal of the solids from the wastewater. At the effluent treatment plant, the wastewater passes through a filtration screen that traps any large items floating in the water. Followed by it, the water travels through a grit chamber, where gravel and other small stones are made to settle to the bottom. Once all the grit has been removed, the tiny organic matter left in the wastewater is subjected to secondary treatment.
The first step is more of a physical process. Through sedimentation and repeated filtration, most of the floating debris are removed. However, the organic matter, microbes, etc, still remain dissolved. To remove the same, secondary treatment is employed.
Secondary Treatment: It is a biological process that employs friendly bacteria and fungi to digest the organic matter. They are added in the form of seed sludge. Air is pumped into the huge aeration tanks along with the seed sludge. The wastewater obtained from primary treatment is then subjected to it. The aerobic bacteria multiply rapidly, break down the organic matter, and finally give out the treated wastewater.
Disposing the Treated Wastewater:
The wastewater can be safely disposed of by one of the following methods:
- Surface Discharge: It refers to releasing the treated wastewater into the water bodies such as local ponds, rivers, or lakes. However, it should adhere to the regulations of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The water quality should be maintained at all costs.
- Subsurface Discharge: It refers to the disposal of wastewater underground. It involves discharging the effluent through field pipes which lead the wastewater from the tank to the soil. Once the wastewater exits, it gets absorbed by the soil and broken down by bacteria inhabiting the soil.
- Water Reuse: It is the process of recycling wastewater for beneficial applications. The treated wastewater can be used for irrigation or replenishing the groundwater. The leftover pollutants in the wastewater are harmlessly assimilated into the soil. It is a cost-effective and environmentally conscious way to repurpose the treated wastewater.
Wastewater Disposal Solutions:
At PDF Ltd., we understand the importance of discharging safe water. As the wastewater industry continues to advance, PDFL is on the frontline to offer efficient and cost effective water treatment solutions.
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